The Primary math curriculum utilizes concrete materials to teach the basics of mathematics without reliance on rote memorization. Children progress from recognizing and sequencing numbers 0 to 10 to the arithmetical operations using up to seven-digit numbers.

The math curriculum begins with materials that teach children numerals 1 through10. Students learn numbers in isolation, the concept of quantity, and corresponding symbols. Special emphasis is placed on increments of 10, as they are the basis of the decimal system. Students progress to the Spindle Boxes where they learn one-to-one correspondence and the concept of absence of quantity – or zero. Next follows Cards and Counters, where students put numbers in order by ones and twos.

Older children work with the Golden Beads which concretely represent the units of 1, 10, 100, and 1,000 that make up the decimal system. They also complete a series of lessons to learn addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Students are introduced to the concept of volume through the Geometric Solids, as well as the beginnings of algebra through the Binomial Cube and the Square of the Decinomial.